The Management of Coastal Erosion

At present, the coasts all over the country have been facing with coastal erosion with a total distance of around 830 kilometers. 730 kilometers of which are in the Gulf of Thailand (There are 502 and 228 kilometers of Moderate and severe erosion, respectively) and 100 kilometers are in Andaman Sea (There are 75 and 25 kilometers of Moderate and severe erosion, respectively). The intensity of coastal erosion would be increased due to the sea level rise caused by the effects of global warming.

Therefore, it is necessary to prevent and preserve all remaining coastal areas, to solve and recover the affected coastal areas along with the conservation, preservation, and restoration of natural resources and environments in order to encourage their value for tourism, as well as building up participation mechanisms and enhancing precautionary management to systemically cope with problems on coastal erosion for sustainable coastal zone management.

Currently, there are many agencies such as Marine Department, Department of Public Work and Tow and Country Planning, Department of Highway, Department of Mineral Resources, Royal Irrigation Department, Fisheries Department, provincial administrative organizations, local administrative organizations, and private companies, have collaboratively participated in building the structures to protect the coast from erosion in Songkhla, Phetchaburi, Samut Songkhram, Samut Sakorn, Bangkok, Samut Prakan, Chachoengsao, and Rayong provinces that have been seriously faced with coastal erosion as shown in (Table)

Table  Number of structures for coastal protection tabulated by each type of structures and province

Provinces

Types of structures

Sea walls

Offshore Break Water

Revetments

Jetties

Groin

Bamboo tree Wave Breakers

Concrete-rod Wave Breakers

Sand Sausages

Other structures

Songkhla

14

17

4

-

3

-

3

-

4

Phetchaburi

5

29

-

2

18

-

-

-

1

Samut Songkhram

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Samut Sakorn

2

2

-

-

-

2

-

1

-

Bangkok

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

Samut Prakan

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

Table  Number of structures for coastal protection tabulated by each type of structures and province (Continued)

Provinces

Types of structures

Sea walls

Offshore Break Water

Revetments

Jetties

Groin

Bamboo tree Wave Breakers

Concrete-rod Wave Breakers

Sand Sausages

Other structures

Chachoengsao

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

Rayong

7

11

-

-

2

-

-

-

-

Total

32

60

4

2

24

2

3

3

5

Sources:  The Surveys, Analysis of Efficiency, and Environmental and Social Impact Analysis of Coastal Erosion Structures in Thailand, cited in Department of Coastal and Marine Resources (B.E.2555b)

Table  Number of structures for coastal protection tabulated by each authorized organization and province

Provinces

Organizations

Marine Department

Department of Public Work and Tow and Country

Planning

Department of Highway

Department of Mineral Resources

Royal Irrigation

Department

Fisheries Department

Provincial Administrative  Organizations

Local Administrative Organizations and Private Companies

Total

Songkhla

10

7

2

5

-

2

4

15

45

Phetchaburi

2

-

-

28

14

-

-

11

55

Samut Songkhram

-

1

-

1

-

-

-

-

2

Samut Sakorn

-

2

-

2

-

-

2

1

7

Bangkok

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

Samut Prakan

-

1

-

1

-

-

1

-

3

Chachoengsao

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

1

2

Rayong

6

15

-

17

-

-

-

-

38

Total

19

27

2

54

14

2

7

28

153

Sources:  The Surveys, Analysis of Efficiency, and Environmental and Social Impact Analysis of Coastal Erosion Structures in Thailand, cited in Department of Coastal and Marine Resources (B.E.2555b)

 

The Department of Marine and Coastal Resources, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment has prepared the National Strategies on the Management and Prevention of Coastal Erosion in 2008 with missions to prevent the natural coastal areas from erosion problems, to solve and recover the eroded coasts, and to build up awareness and participation of all concerned stakeholders in order to effectively and sustainably manage, prevent and solve problems concerning with coastal erosion. The guidelines and measures in preventing and managing the coastal erosion are shown as follows:

Development  and improvement of database on coastal area to use as a decision-making tool for planning and operation

Survey and collect data concerned with characteristics of coasts all over the country as well as continuously gather data regarding the coastal changes

Systematically collect and generate the database concerning the economic, social, and environmental data of the coastal community, especially, in the critical and high risk areas.

Produce up-to-date and standard databases which can process and illustrate the situation of coastal area of Thailand, are applied for coastal management in the critical and high risk areas.

Participation in the management, prevention, and solving the coastal erosion

ncrease efficiency in public relations, understanding on the coastal erosion and its managements.

Enhance capabilities of agencies, institutes, and those concerned with the coastal erosion problems.

Preparation of master plan and/or strategic plan on the integrated management of the coastal erosion

Provide opportunities for all concerned parties to participate in decision making, planning and other processes. Those help them to understand the further impacts that might be occurred, and making connection among parties for collaborative implementation, leading to goal achievement.

Establish the plan for integrated management of coastal area covering all coastal provinces and produce the strategic plan for the areas where the coastal erosion is highly intensified and management is urgently required. The plan should be related to the national policies, strategies, and National Plan for Environmental and Natural Resource Management

Preventing, Mitigating, and recovering the coastal area

Specify and classify the coastal areas that have the erosion problems or tend to be affected in the future. It is useful for selecting any protective measures that are appropriate for each area.

Establish the strategic and implementation plans with local organizations and local stakeholders.

Mitigate and recover the coastal areas, affected by coastal erosion, to their naturally-original balances or potential that can serve the services for economic and social development.

Protect the areas along the coast that are risky to be eroded by conserving natural resources, preserving the coastal ecosystems, and appropriate economic development in the area for sustainable utilization of coastal areas.

Development of the systems to monitor, examine, and control the implementation of management and protection of coastal erosion

Improve and revise the existing and relevant laws to be appropriate and efficient for its enforcement, especially in the critical and urgent area.

Specify aggressive measures in following up and monitoring the situation of coastal changes, and prepare the evaluation system for the implementation of the coastal erosion management.