Mangrove plantation and rehabilitation
Mangrove plantation and rehabilitation are the main measures that have been implemented for a long time by government and private sectors. It can be concluded as follows:
Mangrove plantation projects by using government budget
The Forestry Department had implemented these projects from 1939 in the deteriorated mangrove forests in Chantaburi Province. The project was initially implemented in just a small area, in the larger area later. The mangrove plant in the genus Rhizophora, Cersiops, Bruguiera are mostly planted. The previous mangrove plantation projects were focused on rehabilitation of deteriorated mangrove forests without any plan of further utilization. The mangrove plantation projects using the government budget were implement during 1939-1991 covering in Chantaburi, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Trang, Satun, Pattani, Krabi, and Chumporn Province, with a total area of 90.66 square kilometers.
Mangrove plantation under the condition of mangrove concession
The logging concession had initiated since 1968 for 248 forests which were totally 1,439.61 square kilometers under the conditions that the restoration and plantation must be done after each year of logging. The number of mangrove plants for such restoration and plantation each year were established in the first period of concession that to be only equaled to the value of severance tax. Hence, the plantation according to above concession was not balanced with the number of mangrove cut. Consequently, the concession’s conditions were better revised in the second entitlement of logging concession; especially, the plantation which must be fully operated covering all over the logged areas based on the plantation methods suggested by the Forestry Department; the budget of the plantation shall not be over the triple values of severance tax, and the small channels must be done in order to support the mangrove growth. According to the above reasons, mangrove plantation projects are not required for these areas because it has already been restored by the concessionaires, but that plantation under the concession's conditions should be strictly evaluated by the relevant officers.
Mangrove plantation by the private sector
Mangrove plantation projects implemented by the private sectors were done in the the Upper Gulf of Thailand covering Petchaburi, Samut Songkhram, Samut Prakan, Chonburi Province. Most areas of which were planted in order to produce charcoals from planted mangroves. Besides , mangrove plantation and charcoal production have been as a home occupation for the local people living in Ban Taboon, Banlaem District of Phetchaburi Province and Ban Yee Sarn, Amphawa District of Samut Sakhon Province since 1937; they are mostly inherited the land for mangrove plantation from their ancestor. The planting areas of approximately 25.6 square kilometers have been utilized for charcoal production when the mangroves are at the age of 8 - 12 years.
Unfortunately, most areas are currently changed to shrimp farms.
Mangrove plantation project under the royal initiatives
The Ministry of the Agriculture and Cooperative is the main host together with the private sectors to implement the Forest Plantation Project for the Commemoration of the Fiftieth Anniversary of His Majesty King Bhumibol Adulyadej's enthronement. The Forestry Department were responsible for assigning the target areas to be implemented. In case of the mangrove forest, target areas is about 50.76 square kilometers consisted of 57 places covering in 12 provinces.
Mangrove Plantation Project in Honor of Her Majesty the Queen Sirikit in the Auspicious Occasion of the 72nd Birthday Anniversary was approved by the Cabinet on 25 September, 2002. Department of Marine and Coastal Resources is an implementing agency on mangrove conservation and restoration, specified the target areas of 1,152 square kilometers which was classified as 1) the plantation in the urgent areas of 83.20 square kilometers, 2) the rehabilitation in deteriorated mangrove forest of 588.80 square kilometers, and zoning of the protected areas of 480 square kilometers covering 23 provinces. The planted area of 1,153.74 square kilometers was successfully achieved which was higher than the project's objectives during 2004 - 2007 (Department of Marine and Coastal Resources, 2552d).
Mangrove restoration projects