Mangrove Conservation and Restoration

To solve the problem of the decline and deterioration of mangrove forests and conserve the mangrove ecosystems, mangrove administration based on the theories of forest management, continuously monitoring and adopting the relevant policies for decision making process should be conducted. The implementation should also be appropriate for the conditions of each area and focused on the public participation of all sectors to conserve mangrove forests and to develop the uses of mangroves with appropriateness, sustainability, and equality that the relevant laws and regulations should be strictly applied. The mangrove land use zoning and rehabilitation of the deteriorated mangrove forests are the main strategies for current mangrove management.   

The mangrove land use zoning

 Due to rapid decrease of the mangrove forests, that almost half of them during 1961-1986 were encroached for various activities and illegal logging , in order to solve such problems, the Cabinet resolved on 15 December, 1987 to classify the zone and establish the measures of mangrove land use as shown in figure  as follows:

Conservation zone means any restricted mangrove areas where any activities, that cause any changes to those areas, are prohibited in order to preserve the environment and ecosystem including the area for preserving economic plants and aquatic animals, breeding areas of aquatic animals, the areas that are easily eroded and destroyed, historical site, local unique areas, national parks, arboretums,  tourism areas, wild life sanctuaries and no-hunting areas, the areas which should be preserved to be wind breakers, the mangrove areas that should be preserved to be research stations and ecological and environmental preservation, should be located more than 20 meters from rivers and natural channels and more than 75  meter from the coasts.

 

Specific economic zone can be divided into:

 Economic Zone A means the mangrove areas where the logging is allowed to be operation including concession areas, other mangrove areas without concession that should be conserved from community forest, wood lot for government and private sector’s requirement.

Economic Zone B means the mangrove areas where the other land use and developmental activities are allowed in this area but those environmental impacts must be concerned. These areas include agricultural farming, livestock, fisheries, salt fields, industrial sites, mining, construction of factories, communities, commercial areas, ports and piers, and others.

 According to the Cabinet’s Resolution, the area of mangrove in Thailand under the cabinet’s resolution was 4,368.06 square kilometers as shown in Figure , and in 2002, the illustration of those land use as shown in Table  and Figure .

 

 Table  The areas of each land use types according to the mangrove land use zoning in 2002

Land use

Area

Rai

Percentage

Ports

868.75

0.03

Shrimp farms

466,518.75

17.09

Salt farms

174,800.00

6.40

Mangrove forests

1,579,718.75

57.86

Beach forests

10,093.75

0.37

Deciduous forests

5,200.00

0.19

Swamp forest

43,875.00

1.61

Agricultural areas

246,618.75

9.03

Unoccupied areas

42,806.25

1.57

Mines

2,050.00

0.08

Communities and Buildings

57,931.25

2.12

Tidal flats

99,556.25

3.65

Total

2,730,037.50

100.00

Source: GIS data of the Department of Marine and Coastal Resource analyzed by Tesco co., ltd.

 

The mangrove areas according to the cabinet’s resolution in 1987

The mangrove areas according to the cabinet’s resolution in 2002