Threats to mangroves
According to the analysis of mangrove problems, it can be concluded that the major causes of a large decrease of the mangrove forests in Thailand can be divided into 2 periods: during 1961-1979, the decrease of mangrove were mainly resulted from the encroachment for logging to commercially produce charcoals, mining, building piers and dams; and as from 1986, the main causes of the mangrove deterioration were the encroachment for coastal aquaculture proposes such as shrimp farming for export, urbanization, and expansion of communities and industries.
However, the continuous decline of mangrove forests are resulted from a combination of many causes including the population growth which produces many developmental activities such as fisheries and coastal aquacultures (especially shrimp farming), mining, agriculture, expansion of communities, building piers and marinas, constructing roads and electric facilities, industries, power plants, dredging, salt fields, overexploitation, and other activities. People utilize mangrove as their resource for implementing such developmental activities because it helps reduce their operation cost. Due to the ineffective of laws and regulations and lack of enforcement and practices, the encroachment are still occurred. These problems could be generated from that most people don't realize and understand about the importance of mangrove ecosystem, leading to the inappropriate utilization of mangrove.
The changes of the mangroves affect the mangrove ecosystem in many aspects including elevated water temperature, decreased nutrients, increased salinity, pollutants, soil erosion, change of species composition, abundance, and assemblage of important plants and aquatic animals, the imbalance of mangrove ecosystems and the nearby ecosystems. These impacts will further affect on the national economy and people; and it is difficult to restore them to be healthy as it happen in the past although much more budget are available. (Department of Marine and Coastal Resource, 2555b)