The Ranong biosphere reserve was declared in 1997, administered by Mangrove Resources Research Center No. 1 in Ranong Province, The Ranong biosphere reserve is the mangrove area that declared as the first biosphere reserve in the world as shown in figure.
Characteristics of Declared Area
The Ranong Biosphere Reserve consists of three zone based on the MAB specification. The core zone covers 40,761.56 Rai (1 Rai equals 0.16 Hectare) with complex environment and high biodiversity. It has been as a research station for a long history and provided much scientific knowledge. Approximately 3,000 Rai of 30 meter-high mangrove trees can be found only in Ranong Biosphere Reserve. The dense mangrove forest characterized by many waterways and the sea without disturbances from human activities is a suitable nursery ground and habitat for any aquatic organisms. Furthermore, the mangrove forest can reduce coastal erosion derived from high intensity of waves and storms. The area of 26,744.31 Rai, next to the core zone, was categorized as a buffer zone where different types of sustainable use and restoration of natural resources were applied. The last zone, called transition zone, covers 40,681 Rai where all human activities exist. Most areas have been turned into agricultural areas such as rubber tree, coconut, crops, closed mine, and residence. Control and management of community growth and protection of environmental quality are required to prevent any disturbances on the buffer zone and core zone (Mangrove Resources Research Center, 2013)