Management of Marine and Coastal Water Quality

The linkage of rivers from land and sea creates balanced and consistent aquatic ecosystems. However, urbanization and population growth cause many coastal problems such as coastal constructions including piers, hotels, tourism areas, or communities. Moreover, the wastewater drained form industries and agricultural area and communities contaminates surface water that further affect to the marine and coastal water quality in the Gulf of Thailand and Andaman Sea. Major estuaries should be monitored, especially, the Upper Gulf of Thailand where such areas are covered with coastal aquacultures, agricultural areas, factories, and communities. These are faced with the water problems on high sediments,  bacteria, and organic nutrients which are tended to increase. In order to manage marine and coastal water quality, the measures should be covered with the following issues:                                                                                                        Monitoring within the risky areas that often experience with such problems, conducting casual chain analysis, transferring the results to local organizations for further administration and management.  Having the database that can be continuously analyzed trends and changes in order to evaluate the management efficiency and effectiveness in the problematic areas. Effective administration and control the point sources of pollutions and waste water treatment system. Effective and strict enforcement of environment laws and pollution control measures.