Environmental factors in the seagrass ecosystem are important to the growth of seagrass and balance of seagrass ecosystem. Generally, the important environmental factors are as the followings:
Sediments: It is a limiting factor for species, growth rate and survival rate of seagrass. Seagrasses can be grown on coarse sand, sand with dead coral, muddy sand and clay.
Salinity: Each species of seagrasses can differently tolerate to salinity. Tolerant species to salinity change can be found in the areas where salinity is usually fluctuated such as brackish environment or estuary. On the other hand, the less tolerant species are usually found in the environment with stable salinity.
Depth: It is related to the tolerance of seagrass to air exposure. The seagrasses found in shallow water are usually tolerant to air exposure during low tide, while the less tolerant developed in deeper water. However, seagrasses need sunlight for their photosynthesis process, thus they usually grow at the depth with enough intensity of light for their growth.
Turbidity: It is caused by the suspended sediment or particle of sediment in water column, which usually occur in area with water circulation such as estuary, mangrove forest or human activity areas, i.e., seabed mining. Turbidity effect on light quality, shine to seagrass. If water as high turbidity, light quality is decrease, which also effect to photosynthesis of sreagrass.
Severity of wind: Although rhizome system can burrow and adhere to bottom but the strong wave can effect on growth of seagrass result of extrication of their stem. Only seagrass in the area where the wind is not so strong is found.