The seagrass ecosystem consists of the group of flowering plants grown in the sea, shallow water with sunlight. It is important as being nursery areas for juvenile organisms and habitats and source of food for other organisms, especially fish, shrimps and swimmer crabs. Not only the small organisms inhabit in seagrass beds, but also large marine organisms such as sea turtles and dugongs, including economic species, i.e. fish, shrimps, crabs and various shells. Seagrasses are a natural filter for water quality improvement and their rhizomes can protect the sea bottom from erosion. Moreover, endangered marine species such as sea turtle and dugong are also found in some seagrass habitats where they feed seagrass as a food. Sea turtle and dugong populations are decreasing, which are usually died from some fishing gears, i.e., beach seines, push net, gill net and barriers. While, seagrass habitat is first the ecosystem facing with impacts generated from change on terrestrial environment caused by both natural phenomena and human activities, mainly the coastal communities, agricultural developments both planting and aquaculture such as shrimp farming. These activities all affects on seagrass ecosystem.
Figure 1 Seagrass ecosystem