About Artificial Reef
Figure Development of artificial reefs
The different shapes of the artificial reefs are designed in conformity with the desired purposes. Nowadays, concretes are popular materials used to build an artificial reef because of its durability, long-lasting, heaviness, high stability, low-environmental impacts. Concrete is also a good substrate for the attachments of many sessile organisms which serve as food for other fish in the higher tropic levels within a food chain. The examples are shown
Figure Examples of concrete artificial reefs (Szedlmayer, 1994)A factor of material designation for the construction of artificial reef is having gaps or holes that the water can flow through the artificial reefs easily and to allow fish to live within (Szedlmayer, 1994). A form and shape of the materials used in producing artificial reefs are different by countries and purposes; it can be divided as follows: Artificial reefs for coral reef restoration and recruitment These artificial reefs are designed for the attachments of sessile organisms such as corals, oysters, algae; benthic organisms, and the juveniles of marine life. Most of the reefs are quite flat that have more recruitment spaces, while some structures are complex. They provide the marine life as a habitat and refuge. Many types of artificial reef are designed in purposes for the increase of area for recruitment and coral reef restoration. Artificial reef as a fish habitat The artificial reefs which attract various fish are usually built with rather complex structure, providing a cavity in the middle of an artificial reef that allow fish can be resided in as their habitats and refuges from predators (Lam, 2003). According to the findings of Ogawa (1997) studying the behavior of fish in the artificial reef, it is concluded that the fish living in artificial reef can be categorized into three groups: 1) fish that live in the middle of water column to the surface, i.e., Yellow-fin tuna, Snail-eater pangasius, Trevally, King mackerel sardines and dolphins, are usually found away from the artificial reefs; 2) fish that live near the sea floor and the artificial reefs, i.e., Pink ear emperor, Giant seaperch, True sole; 3) fish that inhabit regularly in the artificial reefs including Cabezon, Rock trout, Eel, Goby usually found close to the artificial reefs (Ogawa, 1997 cited by Poonsin et al, B.E. 2531).
Artificial reef for tourism In some areas, the artificial reefs are not only advantage in fisheries, but also in tourism because of its uniqueness, for examples, a sinking ship, a sinking airplane, and even the underwater architecture, etc. Furthermore, if the environment in artificial reef is appropriate for coral larvae recruitment, the abundance and beautifulness of coral reefs may be developed as well as the coral reefs in the nature.
Figure Artificial reefs for coral reef restoration and recruitment
Figure Artificial reef as a fish habitat
Figure Artificial reef for tourism